An overview of Sofia Offshore Wind Farm: Where the project is, what it comprises and how it works.


Onshore Converter Station


Onshore Cable Corridor

Offshore Export Cable

<span>Converter</span> station site

Converter station site

The location of Sofia’s new onshore converter station will be adjacent to the Wilton Complex near the village of Lazenby.



This is where the offshore cables bringing the power generated by Sofia will land, before joining onshore cables to transmit the power to the new converter station.

Offshore <span>export cables</span>

Offshore export cables

Brand-new cable installation vessel Leonardo da Vinci will install Sofia's export cables, which will carry the power from Dogger Bank 220km to shore.



Sofia will comprise 100 turbines each standing 252 metres tall. That is more than three times the height of Newcastle's tallest building, Hadrian's Tower, at 83m and completed in 2020.

Offshore <span>converter</span> station

Offshore converter station

At the heart of the wind farm, this is where the power generated by the turbines will be converted to DC for transmission to shore along two 220 kilometre long export cables.

<span>Array</span> cables

Array cables

In total more than 360 kilometres of cables will carry power to the converter station. They will be laid by cable-laying vessel Nexus.


In terms of components, the wind farm will comprise 100 turbines, an offshore converter station and hundreds of kilometres of both inter-array and export cables, as well as onshore electrical infrastructure.



Final investment decision

Start of onshore converter station enabling works

Manufacture of offshore components underway


Start of onshore cable route enabling works

Onshore converter station construction

Offshore construction begins


Installation of offshore converter platform

First turbine installation


Full operation


  1. The wind blows at the wind farm site on Dogger Bank.
  2. Sensors on top of each of Sofia’s wind turbines signal them to pivot, known as yaw, to ensure they face into the wind, while each blade is angled to produce the most lift force from the wind.
  3. The blades are attached to the wind turbine via the hub. The hub is attached to a generator inside the nacelle, which also houses most of the turbine’s other electrical equipment.
  4. The lift force from the wind energy on the blades causes the hub and generator of each turbine to turn.
  5. The generator uses magnets to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy.
  6. The electricity produced by each turbine is transmitted along array cables to the offshore converter platform.
  7. The offshore converter platform converts the generated electricity from 66 kilovolts (kV) alternating current (AC) up to 320kV direct current (DC).
  8. The electricity is transmitted 220 kilometres from the converter platform to shore along two offshore export cables. High voltage direct current cables are used to minimise transmission losses.
  9. From shore, the power then goes 7km via buried cables to the onshore converter station near the village of Lazenby.
  10. Here the electricity is converted into 400kV, a voltage that is suitable to enter the national grid.
  11. It is then transmitted a further 2km, to the National Grid substation at Lackenby, from where it is distributed to homes, industry and businesses for use.