An overview of Sofia Offshore Wind Farm: Where the project is, what it comprises and how it works.


Wind Farm Site

Indicative Export Cable Corridor

National Grid Substation

Indicative Onshore Cable Route


In terms of components, the wind farm will comprise 100 turbines, an offshore converter station and hundreds of kilometres of both inter-array and export cables, as well as onshore electrical infrastructure.


Late 2020

Main contractors chosen as well as operations & maintenance port site


Final investment decision

Financial close

Start of civils works / onshore construction

Manufacture of offshore components underway


Offshore construction begins


First power generated


Full operation


  1. The wind blows at the wind farm site on Dogger Bank.
  2. Sensors on top of each of Sofia’s wind turbines signal them to pivot, known as yaw, to ensure they face into the wind, while each blade is angled to produce the most lift force from the wind.
  3. The blades are attached to the wind turbine via the hub. The hub is attached to a generator inside the nacelle, which also houses most of the turbine’s other electrical equipment.
  4. The lift force from the wind energy on the blades causes the hub and generator of each turbine to turn.
  5. The generator uses magnets to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy.
  6. The electricity produced by each turbine is transmitted along array cables to the offshore converter platform.
  7. The offshore converter platform converts the generated electricity from 66 kilovolts (kV) alternating current (AC) up to 320kV direct current (DC).
  8. The electricity is transmitted 220 kilometres from the converter platform to shore along two offshore export cables. High voltage direct current cables are used to minimise transmission losses.
  9. From shore, the power then goes 7km via buried cables to the onshore converter station near the village of Lazenby.
  10. Here the electricity is converted into 400kV, a voltage that is suitable to enter the national grid.
  11. It is then transmitted a further 2km, to the National Grid substation at Lackenby, from where it is distributed to homes, industry and businesses for use.